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The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir Part 25

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~Ali Masjid~ (~Khaibar~), 342 N.--715 E. Village and fort in Khaibar, 10-1/4 miles from Jamrud. Elevation 2433 feet.

~Ambela~ (~Indep. Territory~), 342 N.--724 E. Pa.s.s in Buner, which gave its name to the Ambela campaign of 1863 (page 191).

~Chakdarra~ (~Dir~, ~Swat~, and ~Chitral~), 344 N.--728 E. Military post to N.E. of Malakand Pa.s.s on south bank of Swat River.

~Chitral~, 355 N.--715 E. A group of villages forming capital of Chitral State. There is a small _bazar_.

~Jamrud~ (~Khaibar~), 34 N.--712 E. Just beyond Peshawar boundary at mouth of Khaibar. Terminus of railway. 10-1/2 miles west of Peshawar.

There is a fort and a large _sarai_. Elevation 1670 feet.

~Landi Kotal~ (~Khaibar~), 346 N.--718 E. 20 miles from Jamrud. Fort garrisoned by Khaibar Rifles at highest point of Khaibar route.

Elevation 3373 feet. Afghan frontier 6 miles beyond.

~Malakand~ (~Dir~, ~Swat~, and ~Chitral~), 343 N.--716 E. Pa.s.s leading into Swat Valley from Peshawar district.

~Miram Shah~ (~N. Waziristan~), 336 N.--707 E. Headquarters of North Waziristan Agency in Tochi Valley 3050 feet above the sea.

~Parachinar~ (~Kurram~), 335 N.--704 E. Headquarters of Kurram Agency and of Kurram Militia. Climate temperate. Population 2364.

~Wana~ (~S. Waziristan~), 372 N.--694 E. Headquarters of South Waziristan Agency. In a wide valley watered by Wana Toi. There is much irrigation and the place is unhealthy, though the elevation of the Valley is from 4300 to 5800 feet.

IV. KASHMiR AND JAMMU.

~Baramula~, 341 N.--742 E. Situated at the point where the Jhelam gorge ends and the Vale of Kashmir begins. Travellers who intend to go to Srinagar by water board their house boats here. There is an excellent poplar-lined road from Baramula to Srinagar and a bad road to Gulmarg.

~Chilas~, 354 N.--742 E. See page 323.

~Gulmarg~, 341 N.--744 E. S.W. of Srinagar. It is a favourite hot weather resort of Europeans. The Maharaja has a house here. The forest scenery is beautiful, especially on the way to the limit of trees at Khilanmarg. Good golf links on beautiful turf.

~Gurais~, 347 N.--748 E. A beautiful valley drained by the head waters of the Kishnganga. It lies between Bandipura and the Burzil Pa.s.s on the road to Gilgit.

~Hunza~, 364 N.--747 E. (See page 323.) Hunza is a group of villages.

The Raja's (or Tham's) fort, Balt.i.t castle, at an elevation of 7000 feet is splendidly situated in full view of Rakapos.h.i.+, distant 20 miles. It is overhung by the enormous ma.s.s of snow peaks said to be called in the language of the country Boiohaghurduanasur (the peak of the galloping horse).

~Islamabad~, 334 N.--751 E. About 40 miles by river from Srinagar, near the point where the Jhelam ceases to be navigable. Achabal and Martand are easily visited from Islamabad, and it is the starting point for the Liddar Valley and Pahlgam. It is a dirty insanitary place.

~Jammu~, 324 N.--745 E. Capital of the Jammu province and winter residence of the Maharaja. Connected with Sialkot by rail. Situated above the ravine in which the Tawi flows. At a distance the white-washed temples with gilded pinnacles look striking. The town was once much more prosperous than it is to-day.

~Leh~, 342 N.--775 E. Capital of Ladakh. On the Indus 11,500 feet above sea-level. The meeting place of caravans from India and Yarkand. The Central Asian caravans arrive in Autumn, when the _bazar_, in a wide street lined with poplars, becomes busy. The Wazir Wazarat has his headquarters here, and there is a small garrison in the mud fort. The old palace of the Gyalpo (King) is a large pile on a ridge overhanging the town. There are Moravian and Roman Catholic missions at Leh.

~Martand~, 334 N.--751 E. Remains of a remarkable temple of the Sun G.o.d three miles east of Islamabad (pages 166 and 201).

~Payer~ (erroneously ~Payech~). Nineteen miles from Srinagar containing a beautiful and well-preserved temple of the Sun G.o.d, dated variously from the fifth to the thirteenth century (page 202).

~Punch~, 334 N.--749 E. Capital of the _jagir_ of the Raja of Punch, a feudatory of the Kashmir State. 3300 feet above sea level. There is a brisk trade in grain and _ghi_. Decent roads connect Punch with Rawalpindi and Uri on the Jhelam. Cart Road into Kashmir. Kashmiris call the place Prunts and its old name was Parnotsa.

~Skardo~, 353 N.--756 E. Old capital of Baltistan. 7250 feet above sea-level. In a sandy basin lying on both sides of the Indus, and about five miles in width. A _tahsildar_ is stationed at Skardo.

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