A Manual Of Buddhism Part 2

A Manual Of Buddhism -

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Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.


i. "This is The n.o.ble Truth of the cause of suffering - Dukkha Samudaya Ariya Sacca."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.

ii "This n.o.ble Truth of the Cause of Suffering should be eradicated - Pahatabba."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eyes...the light.

iii "This n.o.ble Truth of the Cause of Suffering has been eradicated-Pahinam."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.


i. "This is The n.o.ble Truth of the cessation of suffering - Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eyes...the light.

ii. "This n.o.ble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering should be realized -Sacchika tabbam."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose inme the eye...the light.

iii. "This n.o.ble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering has been realized- Sacchikatam."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eyes...the light.


i. "This is The n.o.ble Truth of the path leading tothecessationofsuffering - Dukkha Nirodhagamini Patipada Ariya Sacca."

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.

ii. "This n.o.ble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering should be developed-Bhavetabbam."

Thus, O, Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.

iii. This n.o.ble Truth of the Path Leading to the cessation of Suffering has been developed - Bhativam Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to thin unheard before, there arose in me the eye...the light.

"As long as, O Bhikkhus, the absolute true knowledge regarding theseFourn.o.ble Truths under their three aspects and twelve modes was notperfectly clear to me, so long did I not acknowledge, in this world, together with G.o.ds, Maras, and Brahmas, amongst the hosts of ascetics and priests, G.o.ds and men, that I had gained the Incomparable, Supreme Enlightenment.

When O Bhikkhus, the absolute true knowledge regarding these Four n.o.ble Truths, under their three aspects and twelve modes perfectly clear to me, then only did I acknowledge in the world, together with G.o.ds, Maras, and Brahmas, amongst the hosts of ascetics and priests, G.o.ds, and men, that I had gained the Incomparable Supreme Enlightenment.

"And there arose in me the knowledge and insight - Unshakable is the deliverance of my mind, this is my last birth now there is no more rebirth."

This the Blessed One said, and the delighted Bhikkhus applauded the words of the Blessed One. While this doctrine was being expounded, there arose in the Venerable Kondanna" the dustless, stainless eye of Truth, 'Whatsoever has arisen, all that must inevitably perish.'

When the Buddha expounded this Dhammacakka, the earth-bound deities exclaimed:-"This excellent Dhammacakka, which could not be expounded by any ascetics, priest, G.o.d; Mara, or Brahma in this world, was expounded by the Blessed One at the Deer Park in Isipatana, near Benares."

Hearing it, theDevas of Catummaharajika, Tavatimsa,Yama,Tusita,Nimmanarati,Para-nimmitavasavatti;andtheBrahmasofBrahma Parisajja,BrahmaPurohita,MahaBrahma, Parittabha, Appamanabha, Abha.s.sara, Paritta-subha, Appamanasubha, Subhakinha, Vehapphala, Aviha, Atappa,,, and Akanittha also raised the same joyous cry.

Thus at that very moment, at that very instant, this cry extended as far as the Brahma Realm. These ten thousand world systems quaked, tottered and trembled violently.

A radiant light, surpa.s.sing the effulgence of the Devas, appeared in the world. Then the Blessed One said: "Friends,Kondannahasindeedunderstood. Friends, Kondanna has indeed understood." Therefore the Venerable Kondanna was name Annata Kondanna.

Chapter 5.

The Sending Of The Missioners

The Conversion Of Yasa.

In Benares there was a young man named Yasa, son of a millionaire, who led a luxurious life at home. Realizing the vanities of worldly life, he stole away from home at night and went in the direction of Isipatana where the Buddha was staying. The Buddha, seeing him, invited him to His presence and expounded the Dhamma, hearing it, he at first attained Sotapatti and later became an Arahant.

The sorrowing father, who was looking for his missing son, also came across the Buddha, and hearing the Dhamma from Him, became the first lay disciple (Upasaka) who sought refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. He then invited the Buddha and the Venerable Yasa to his house for alms. When the Buddha visited his house and expounded the Dhamma, the Venerable Yasa's mother and his former wife also sought refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. They were his first two-laywomen disciples (Upasika).

The Venerable Yasa had fifty-four friends. Hearing of the Venerable Yasa's conversion, they also entered the Order and attained Arahants.h.i.+p.

Exhortation to the First Missioners.

When there were sixty Arahants excluding the Buddha in this world, the Blessed One uttered the following memorable words and dispatched them in various directions to propagate the Sublime Dhamma:- "Free am I, O' Bhikkhus, from all bonds, whether divine or human. You, too, O Bhikkhus, are freed from all bonds, whether divine or human."

"Go forth, O Bhikkhus, for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compa.s.sion for the world, for the good, benefit, and happiness of G.o.ds and men... Let not two go by one way. Preach, O Bhikkhus, the Dhamma, excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, excellent in the end, both in spirit and in the letter. Proclaim the Holy Life, altogether perfect and pure."

"There are beings with a little dust in their eyes, who, not hearing the Dhamma, will fall away. There will be those who understand the Dhamma."

I, too, O Bhikkhus, will go to Uruvela in Senanigama, in order to preach the Dhamma." With this exhortation the Buddha dispatched His first sixty disciples in various directions.

Conversion of Thirty Young Men.

As it was the rainy season the Buddha spent His first Retreat at Isipatana in Benares. Immediately after He went towards Uruvela. On the way He rested at the foot of a tree.

At that time thirty happy young men went with their wives to a grove to amuse themselves. As one had no wife he took with him a courtesan. While they were enjoying themselves this woman absconded with who went in search of valuables. The young men enquired of Him whether he saw the Buddha and inquired whether He saw a woman pa.s.sing that way.

"Which do think young men is better - seeking a woman or seeking oneself? questioned the Buddha.

"Seeking oneself is better young men Lord!" replied the young men.

"Well, then, sit down: I shall preach the doctrine to you", said the Buddha.

They attentively listened to Him and the 'Eye of Truth' arose in them.

Later they all entered the Order and received the Higher Order.

Conversion of the three Ka.s.sapa Brothers.

At Uruvela, there lived three matted-hair (Jatila) ascetics known as Uruvela Ka.s.sapa, Nadi Ka.s.sapa and Gaya Ka.s.sapa. They were all brothers living separately with Five hundred, Three hundred and Two hundred disciples respectively. With much effort, at times using His psychic powers too, the Buddha at first converted the eldest Ka.s.sapa who was greatly infatuated by his own spiritual attainments. Therefore he with his disciples entered the Order and obtained the higher Ordination. The other two brothers and their disciples followed suit.

Accompanied by them all, the Buddha repaired to Gaya SisawhereHepreachedthe Adittapariyaya Sutta - 'Allin Flames', hearing which all attained Arahants.h.i.+p.

The Buddha meets King Bimbisara.

With His large retinue of Arahant disciples, the Buddha, in accordance with the promise He made to King Bimbisara beforeHis Enlightenment, proceeded to Rajagaha.

The king, hearing of His arrival in his kingdom, went with a large following to pay his respects to the Buddha. As the ascetic Ka.s.sapa was held in high esteem by his people, he was at a loss to understand whether the Buddha was a disciple of Ka.s.sapa or the latter was a disciple of the former. The Buddha, reading his thought, questioned Ka.s.sapa as to why he abandoned fire-wors.h.i.+p.

Then the venerable Ka.s.sapa acknowledged the Buddha's superiority, saying:- "My teacher, Lord, is the Lord: I am the disciple. My teacher, Lord, is the Lord: I am the disciple."

The devout people were pleased to hear of the conversion. The Buddha thereupon preached the Maha Narada Ka.s.sapa Jataka to show that they were similarly converted in a previous birth. The 'Eye of Truth' arose in them all. King Bimbisara attained Sotapatti. Thereupon the king invited the Buddha and His followers to his palace for the meal. At the close of the meal on the following day the king offered his Bamboo Grove (Veluvanarama) for the use of the Buddha and His disciples.

Conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana.

Not far from Rajagaha in the village Upatissa, also known as Nalaka, there lived a very intelligent youth, named Sariputta (Son of Sari). Since he belonged to the leading family of the village, he was also called Upatissa. He had three sisters - Cala, Upacala and Sisupacala - and three brothers Upasena, Cunda and Revata.

Though nurtured in Brahmanism, his broad outlook on life and mature wisdom compelled him to renounce his ancestral religion for the more tolerant and scientific teachings of the Buddha Gotama. His brothers and sisters followed his n.o.ble example. His father, Vanganta, apparently adhered to the Brahmin faith. His mother, on the contrary, was converted to Buddhism by herself at the moment of her death.

Upatissa was brought up in the lap of luxury. He found a very intimate friend in Kolita, also known as Moggallana, with whom he was closely a.s.sociated from an infinite past. One day as both of them were enjoying a hilltop festival called the Giragga Samajja, they realized how vain, how transient, were all sensual pleasures. Instantly they decided to leave the world and seek the Path of Release.

Dismissing their attendants and without even informing their parents, they wandered from place to place in quest of Peace.

The two young seekers went at first to Sanjaya, who had a following of five hundred disciples, and sought ordination under him. Before long they acquired the meager knowledge which their master could impart to them: but unsatisfied with his teaching they left him, and meeting disappointment everywhere, returned to their own village. Ultimately they agreed between them that whosoever first discovers the Path should teach the other.

It was at this time that Venerable a.s.saji, one of the first five disciples, went in the direction of Rajagaha.

With body well composed, robes neatly arranged, this venerable figure pa.s.sed with measured steps from door to door, accepting the morsels of food which the charitable placed in his bowl. The saintly deportment of this dignified person at once arrested the attention of Upatissa, who was wandering in the city of Rajagaha.

"Never before have I seen," thought Upatissa to himself, an ascetic like this. Surely he must be one of those who have attained Arahants.h.i.+p or one who is treading the path leading to Arahants.h.i.+p. What if I were to approach him and ask:- "For whose sake Sir, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?"

Upatissa, however, refrained from questioning him, as he thought he would thereby interfere with his silent begging tour. The Arahant a.s.saji, having begged what little he needed, was seeking a suitable place to take his meal. Upatissa, seeing this, gladly availed himself of the opportunity to offer him his own stool and water from his own pot. Fulfilling thus the preliminary duties of a pupil, he exchanged pleasant greetings with him and reverently inquired:- "Calm and serene, Reverend Sir, are your organs of sense; clean and clear is the hue of your skin. For whose sake did you retire from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?"

The una.s.suming Arahant a.s.saji modestly replied:-"I am still a novice in the Order, brother; I am not able to expound the Dhamma to you at length."

I am Upatissa, Reverend Sir. Say much or little according to your ability, and it is left to me to understand it in a hundred or a thousand ways." "Say little or much," Upatissa continued.

"Tell me just the substance. The substance only do I require. A mere jumble of words is of no avail."

The Venerable a.s.saji uttered a four-line stanza, skillfully summing up the profound philosophy of the Master, in the scientific truth of the law of cause and effect.

Ye dhamma hetuppabhava - tesam hetum tathagato Aha tesan ca yo nirodho - evam vadi Maha-Samano "Of things that proceed from a cause Their cause the Tathagata has told, And also their cessation: Thus teaches the Great Ascetic."

So well did the Venerable a.s.saji guide him on his upward path that, immediately on hearing the first two lines, he attained the first stage of Sainthood.

Now, in accordance with the agreement, he returned to his companion Kolita to inform him of the joyful tidings. Kolita, who was as enlightened as his friend, also attained to the same state on hearing the whole stanza. Overwhelmed with joy at the successful conclusion of their search after Peace, they went, as in duty bound, to meet their teacher Sanjaya with the object of converting him to their new faith. Frustrated in their attempt, Upatissa and Kolita, accompanied by 250 of the followers of Sanjaya who readily joined them, repaired to the Veluvana monastery to see their ill.u.s.trious Teacher, the Buddha.

In compliance with their request, the Buddha admitted both of them into the Order by the mere utterance of the words:-"Etha Bhikkhave! Come, O Bhikkhus!"

A fortnightlater,theVenerableSariputta attainedArahants.h.i.+ponhearingtheBuddha expoundtheVedanaPariggahaSuttatothe wandering ascetic Dighanakha. On the very same day in the evening the Buddha summoned all His disciples to His presence and conferred the exalted positions of the first and second disciples in the Sangsa respectively on the Venerable Sariputta and Monggallana, who also had attained Arahans.h.i.+p a week earlier.

Chapter 6.

The Buddha Visits His Birthplace

King Suddhodana desires to see the Buddha.

On hearing that the Buddha was preaching the Dhamma in Rajagaha, King Suddhodana was desirous of seeing Him. Nine courtiers, each with a large following, were sent on nine successive occasions to invite the Buddha to Kapilavatthu. Contrary to the King's expectations all nine attained Arahants.h.i.+pandjoinedthe Order. Since Arahants are indifferent to worldly things they did not convey the King's message to the Buddha.

The disappointed King finally dispatched Kaludayi, who was a playmate of the Buddha. He agreed to go on condition that he would be allowed to enter the Order.

He, too, hearing the Dhamma, attained Arahants.h.i.+p and entered the Order. But unlike the others he conveyed the message to the Buddha and persuaded Him to visit His aged royal father. The Buddha, attended by a large retinue of His disciples, journeyed the whole distance preaching the Dhamma on the way, and arrived in Kapilavatthu in two months.

Arrangements were made for Him to stay in the Park of Nigrodha, a Sakyan. The conceited elderly Sakyans, without paying Him due obeisance, put forward the younger ones to salute Him. The Buddha subdued their pride by rising into the air and exhibiting the "Twin Wonder." The King, seeing this wonderful sight, saluted Him immediately, saying that it was his third salutation. Then all the other Sakyans paid Him due respect. Thereupon the Buddha came down from the sky and sat on the prepared seat. The relatives too sat down to listen to Him.

Then a strange phenomenon occurred. Rain broke out, but it wetted only those who wished to be wet, and not others. When the Sakyans marveledatthisphenomenon,theBuddha preached the Vessantara Jataka to show that a similar incident took place in the presence of his relatives in a previous birth.

The Buddha Goes On His Alms-Round

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